Chủ đề GIỚI TÍNH [IELTS Writing Task 2 – Bài mẫu]


Đây là một chủ đề thú vị và được chú trọng khá nhiều trong kì thi IELTS. Đề bài sẽ thường lồng ghép chủ đề này với những vấn đề cụ thể.

  • Giới tính và giáo dục;
  • Giới tính và công việc;
  • Vai trò của nam và nữ giới trong gia đình.


1. Giới tính và giáo dục

  • Men and women should have access to the same educational opportunities
  • Males and females should be accepted onto courses according to their abilities
  • It is wrong to discriminate against students because of their gender
  • Gender should be irrelevant in education
  • Student’s achievements should depend on hard work and individual merit
  • In the UK, there are similar numbers of male and female students in higher education

2. Giới tính và công việc

  • Men and women should have access to the same professional opportunities
  • Both man and women should be able to pursue a career
  • They should earn equal salaries
  • They should be employed according to their abilities, qualifications and experience
  • Traditionally women have been restricted to certain roles. They were often employed as secretaries or receptionists
  • Nowadays, a range of occupations is available to both sexes
  • Career success depends on individual merit

3. Vai trò của nam và nữ trong gia đình

  • Some people argue that a mother should not work. She should stay at home and bring up her children. The father should be the breadwinner of the family
  • Others believe that both parents should share these responsibilities
  • Working women can take maternity leave during and after pregnancy
  • Many mothers continue to work after this period
  • Many fathers and mothers share their parenting and domestic responsibilities
  • They contribute equally to childcare, cooking and cleaning
  • Some women may have better career prospects than their husbands
  • Paternity leave and ‘househusbands’ are becoming more common
  • Traditional gender roles are gradually changing
  • Families can divide roles and responsibilities in the most convenient way


  • Social bias: định kiến xã hội
  • Equality: sự bình đẳng
  • Domestic violence: bạo lực trong gia đình
  • Dismiss gender misconception: loại bỏ những hiểu lầm về giới tính
  • Discriminate : phân biệt đối xử
  • Stereotype : những tư tưởng thành kiến
  • Breadwinner: trụ cột gia đình
  • The weaker sex: phái yếu
  • Gender discrimination: phân biệt giới tính
  • Child-rearing : nuôi dưỡng con
  • Child-bearing: sinh con
  • Bring up children: nuôi dưỡng con cái
  • Male-dominated societies: xã hội chi phối bởi đàn ông
  • Female-dominated: hầu hết là phụ nữ
  • Economic foundation: nền tảng tài chính
  • Single-mother families: gia đình một mẹ
  • Pursue higher education: theo đuổi học cao
  • Hold high positions: giữ vị trí cao
  • Impose backward ideas on women: áp đặt quan điểm bảo thủ với phụ nữ
  • Unwanted pregnancy: có thai ngoài ý muốn
  • Shoulder family responsibilities: gánh vác trách nhiệm gia đình
  • Shun away family responsibilities: tránh trách nhiệm gia đình


  1. Universities should accept equal numbers of male and female students in every subject. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Universities should accept equal numbers of male and female students in every subject. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Bài mẫu số 01 của thầy Simon 

In my opinion, men and women should have the same educational opportunities. However, I do not agree with the idea of accepting equal proportions of each gender in every university subject.

Having the same number of men and women on all degree courses is simply unrealistic. Student numbers on any course depend on the applications that the institution receives. If a university decided to fill courses with equal numbers of males and females, it would need enough applicants of each gender(1). In reality, many courses are more popular with one gender than the other, and it would not be practical to aim for equal proportions (2). For example, nursing courses tend to attract more female applicants, and it would be difficult to fill these courses if fifty per cent of the places needed to go to males. (3)

Apart from the practical concerns expressed above, I also believe that it would be unfair to base admission to university courses on gender (4). Universities should continue to select the best candidates for each course according to their qualifications. In this way, both men and women have the same opportunities, and applicants know that they will be successful if they work hard to achieve good grades at school (5). If a female student is the best candidate for a place on a course, it is surely wrong to reject her in favour of a male student with lower grades or fewer qualifications.

In conclusion, the selection of university students should be based on merit, and it would be both impractical and unfair to change to a selection procedure based on gender.

Từ vựng và ngữ pháp trong bài

  • In my opinion: Theo ý tôi, ý kiến của tôi là =>Trình bày ý kiến cá nhân của mình
    • Cách diễn đạt tương tự:
      • i am of the opinion that + mệnh đề: Tôi cho rằng…
      • Educational opportunities (Adj + N) : Cơ hội giáo dục. 
  • Student numbers on any course (chú ý dùng giới từ “on” trong cụm từ này), on a course
  • Câu điều kiện: (1), (3), (5)
    • (1) + (3) dùng câu điều kiện không có thật ở hiện tại (If – Past simple, Main clause – Would + infinitive)
    • (5) Câu điều kiện có thật, nói về tình huống có thể xảy ra ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai.
  • (2) + (4)  Would
    • Would là thể quá khứ của động từ khiếm khuyết will, được sử dụng khi người nói muốn hỏi một cách lịch sự, khi đưa ra một lời đề nghị, khi nêu quan điểm hay nhấn mạnh vào một vấn đề nào đó.
    • Trong câu này, would đứng trước động từ “to be” nhằm diễn đạt cho mục đích “nói về một hành động đã không xảy ra trong quá khứ”.
      • I would be very sad if she changed classes.
        Tôi sẽ rất buồn nếu cô ấy chuyển lớp.
    • Would trong (4): Dùng để nhấn mạnh câu
  • For example, mệnh đề: Ví dụ. Các cách diễn đạt về ví dụ minh hoạ khác như: 
    • For instance, mệnh đề: Ví dụ,
    • Take the example of + N: Thứ lấy ví dụ
    • in another case, mệnh đề: Trong một ví dụ khác,
    • Mệnh đề, as can be seen in + Noun: Như chúng ta có thể thấy qua việc
  • Apart from the practical concerns expressed above 
  • in favour of => be in favour of sth/doing sth
    • S + V + in favour of + N
    • S + be in favour of + N
    • Favour (hay favor) là một danh từ mang nghĩa “thiện ý, sự ủng hộ”. Cấu trúc in favour of được dùng với nghĩa:
    • Dùng để ủng hộ một ý kiến, một đề xuất nào mà bạn tin là đúng
    • Quyết định ủng hộ một ai đó hay một việc gì đó
    • Dùng để chọn một ai đó hoặc việc gì đó mà bạn cho là tốt nhất
    • Từ đồng nghĩa với Favour: accept, support, go along with, agree, acquiesce, consent, go with,…
  • In conclusion: Tóm lại là. Thường được dùng trong phần kết luận. Các cách diễn đạt khác như: 
    • in short, mệnh đề: Tóm lại
    • As such, mệnh đề: Như vậy 
    • To sum up, mệnh đề: Tóm lại
    • Overall, mệnh đề: Nhìn chung

Bài mẫu số 2 chủ đề Gender and University – Band 9

The equality among genders is a major part of coalition society. Likewise, many great minds deem that universities also ought to reserve equal seats for boys and girls in each faculty to overcome discrimination. I vehemently agree with the presented argument as every individual, in spite of their gender, have equal right in every walks of life.

Fundamentally, various factor makes agree with the given notion, and there are myriad reasons to substantiate. First and foremost, gone are the days when a particular gender was allowed to do a certain job. However, in present, it is often seen the jobs that were believed to be acquired by only girls, are now being acquired by many machos. which encourage institutes to allocate admissions equally. For example, the nursing profession was supposed to be a job of only females, but at present many males are pursuing their carrier in nursing.

Moreover, nowadays, most individuals are used to marry the partner of the same profession. In other words, with the increased demand of a specific carrier, many people often search their life partner of the same profession since the chance of success is more while working together on the same platform. In Canada, for instance, the majority of couples are working in the same workforce. As a result, the universities get encouraged to give similar importance to both genders.

In conclusion, with the changing trend of human heart, the educational institutes must allocate equal seats for boys and girls in every course. I agree with this phenomenon as the mindset of the modern people are changing and both genders are getting the same importance in every facet of life.

Từ vựng và ngữ pháp trong bài

  • in spite of: chỉ sự nhượng bộ, giúp làm rõ sự tương phản của hai hành động hoặc sự việc trong cùng một câu và thường được dịch là “ tuy nhiên, mặc dù, bất kể”.
    • In spite of + Noun/Noun Phrase/V-ing, S + V + …
    • S + V + …in spite of + Noun/Noun Phrase/V-ing.
  • gone are the days: Đảo ngữ. Dùng để nhấn mạnh ý trong câu.
    • Trong trường hợp này là đảo ngữ với tính từ “gone”
    • The days when a particular gender was allowed to do a certain job are gone. 
    • => Gone are the days when a particular gender was allowed to do a certain job. 
  • As a result, mệnh đề: Kết quả là. Cách diễn đạt tương tự như: 
    • For these reasons,mệnh đề: Vì những lí do này, 
    • Consequently/as a consequence, mệnh đề: Hệ quả là, bởi vậy. 

Bài mẫu số 3 chủ đề Gender and University – Band 8.5

Gender equality is such a debating point these days, where people argue and demand for gender equality for every aspect, for such in work, in education and even in household. To some extent it is fair enough to demand such a thing since we live in a modern world where both men and women are capable in doing similar tasks. However, if we look at this argument which states that tertiary educational institutions should accept the same counts of students for female and male in every subject, there are questions if this is the right initiative in achieving gender equality.

To begin with, I agree that universities should have a diversity in number of students. Back in the days, women are not encouraged to pursue education compared to men since men were seen to be the superior in a household. For example, it used to be a law in Pakistan that women were not allowed to study until Malala Yousafzai, who fought for the rights of female learning. In this modern world, it can be seen that there are more females engaging themselves in education. Hence, I believe accepting different genders gives a good opportunity.

Nevertheless, accepting the equal number of men and women in every subject is a bit unnecessary. This is because not all men are capable in certain skills and vice versa. For instance, some men are fitter to enrol in Engineering course rather than Fashion. This also applies to women, where some are better at doing Law than handle Machinery-related course.

In conclusion, I believe that expanding the university horizon with both females and males is a good step in making sure both get the same opportunity to learn and pursue their dreams, but when it comes to subjects, it depends on the individuals themselves. Everyone should have the right to choose whatever they want to.

Bài mẫu số 4 chủ đề Gender and University – Band 8.5 

Nowadays, higher education is critical for both men and women. It is considered that tertiary education institutes should accept the same number of female and male students in every course. I strongly disagree with this view, because this may de-motivate them from learning and placement in subjects should be according to the ability.

To begin with, enrolling students in a subject without their interest may hinder their learning ability. If they are placed equally in different subjects, it would discourage them from learning due to the lack of interest in it. This, in turn, would have repercussions on their future career aspect. Research, for example, indicates that a group of students in Japan when places in a subject without considering their interest in it had been noticed significantly to stop learning it.

Furthermore, students should be given admission on a subject according to their ability. This is because every student has different capabilities in different subjects. In other words, some learners might be proficient in the science subject, others may be better in the art subject. A recent study, for instance, has found that female students perform 50% better than their male counterparts in the art subject. Thus, it is not beneficial to enrol an equal number of male and female students in the same subject.

In conclusion, it is believed that higher education institutes should enrol an equal number of men and women students in all subjects. However, I fully disagree with this assertion, since it may result in discouraging them from learning, as well as enrolling in a subject should be based on the ability of a student.


  1. Many people think that men should go out to work while women place is in the home. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  2. Some people think women should be allowed to join the army, the navy and the air force just like men. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer.
  3. “Woman and men are commonly seen as having different strength and weaknesses. Is it right to exclude males or females from certain professions because of their gender?”
  4. “In spite of many advances women have made in education and employment, they continue to be at a disadvantage when it comes to pay and promotion. In your view, what should be done to promote equality of opportunity for men and women in the workplace?”

Bài mẫu 1 chủ đề giới tính và công việc 

“Many people think that men should go out to work while women place is in the home. To what extent do you agree or disagree?”

Women and men have had different roles in the community since the beginning. Although these differences are slowly converging, due to the genetic inheritance and socio-demographic components, they still exist. It is said that men should be the breadwinners while women are more suitable for housework and childcare. In my opinion, this statement is not completely right or wrong and requires careful consideration.

Firstly, it is assumed that men should go out to work. Undoubtedly, men are  better adapted genetically to perform physical tasks. The difference in physical abilities is clearly demonstrated in the sporting arena. Take for example the Olympics, or any international sporting event. It can be clearly seen that these competitions the genders are separated due to inherent differences between the sexes. Similarly, such jobs requiring physical strength as logging or coal mining, should continue to be done by men.

Secondly, it has been argued that women are more suitable for their traditional roles in the home. This statement is true to a certain extent but it largely depends on the society. In certain traditional societies in Africa, females working is frowned upon and is seen as neglecting the family. Whereas in Afghanistan, in general, females are allowed to do little else but stay at home, being a housewife. Consequently, a woman’s value is largely dictated by the society, culture and history. Nevertheless, to state that her place is in the home is widely considered sexist in modern western societies. Many women nowadays are in positions of power and changing the world to a great extent. For example, Angela Merkel is the Chancellor of Germany and currently ranked as the world’s second most powerful person by Forbes magazine. Her contribution is obviously undeniable

To conclude, differences do exist though these are largely through nature. However, it is a flawed stereotype that women should be at home and the workplace is not for them. This glass ceiling is certainly what should be shattered to assure women of their right to have the equal opportunity in life.

Bài mẫu 2 chủ đề giới tính và công việc 

“Some people think women should be allowed to join the army, the navy and the air force just like men. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer.”

Whether women should be allowed to serve in the military has triggered spirited debate. Some assert that women should be allowed to defend their country in the same capacity as their male peers. Personally, I agree with their assertion for two reasons.

History has shown that women are fully capable of performing well in the military. Historically, there were a host of valiant women soldiers whose achievements really put their male counterparts to shame. One need only look at the classic examples of Joan of Arc and Mulan to see how exceptionally women could perform on the battlefield. In my observation, their determination, courage and dignity, to this day, are still being admired by male soldiers and civilians alike throughout the world.

Moreover, from an enlightened standpoint, female patriots should be granted the right to go to the front line when their motherland is involved in a war. Admittedly, gender inequality was a highly controversial issue in the twentieth century. However, now twelve years into the new millennium, women can learn and teach, work and supervise, vote and voted in most countries just like men. In light of this sweeping progress in gender equality, there is no sense in denying them the right to defend their home country when a war breaks out.

In sum, keeping military services out of bounds of women in the information age is unwarranted. I have been convinced that it is in the best interest of a nation if women are also granted equal rights in this particular arena.

Bài mẫu 3 chủ đề giới tính và công việc 

“Woman and men are commonly seen as having different strength and weaknesses. Is it right to exclude males or females from certain professions because of their gender?”

It is often argued that it is ok to have exclusive jobs for men or women, some others have the opposite view and believe that men and women should have equal opportunities when applying for a job. This essay is going to disagree with the belief that Job vacancies should be restricted to either gender. The reason for this is Job fairness, diversity and the probability of losing talented applicants.

On the one hand, there is no denial that god created boys and girls differently. Each with their own characteristics, strengths and weaknesses. Men can handle jobs which require extreme physical stamina. Women can multi-task several activities at the same time. However, those unique characteristics are the ones that create a diverse working environment with equal and fair chance for the applicants. For example, a study done by Forbes in 2016 showed that female labour has increased to 40% for California based companies. This means that technology companies are starting to hire more females.

Nevertheless, Companies might be losing talents by limiting the applicants to a specific gender requirement. This is because there was a trend back in the nineties to exclude women from managerial positions. For instance, a study done by Bloomberg in 2018 showed that percentage of female CEO’s has increased by 10% compared to 2017. The same study showed a 70 % increase compared to 2005. An example of successful female leaders is PEPSICO & REDHAT CEO’s.

In Conclusion, some might find it usual to screen a specific gender out of a vacancy. I do however disagree with this way of thinking, therefore I support the other view that career opportunities shouldn’t be limited to either gender because of the Job fairness, diversity and the probability of losing talented applicants.

Bài mẫu 4 chủ đề giới tính và công việc 

It is clear that gender has oftentimes dictated the efficiency of certain jobs. It is a known fact that women and men have various capabilities, that work to their advantage. I partly agree with the statement that few professions do require a certain gender, in this essay I will discuss the above and give relevant examples to support my viewpoint.

First and foremost, it is a known fact that men and women are designed uniquely. Women are considered empathetic and compassionate, who can easily relate to the other person. Often times, women are preferred in roles wherein they have to handle a sensitive group of people or where they are expected to understand and unpack other peoples emotions. For instance, many therapists, teachers and user experience researchers are women. Personally, I work as a UX Research, in my field 90% are of my gender because we can relate to the users we speak to in order to discover their pain points. Furthermore, I have noticed that individuals confide in me better, rather than with a fellow male colleague.

On the other hand, men are physically stronger than women. Even if females partake in physical activities in order to build their physical strength, yet it’s undeniable that men possess more stamina. To illustrate this point, during the construction of a building, 95% of labourers are men because it includes transporting and picking up of heavy materials. Even though women are present there, their role is restricted to the mixing of cement but most of the heavy-duty jobs are performed by men.

In conclusion, as much as the world seeks for equality in all walks of life, it is undeniable that male and female are wired and created differently, hence it needs to accepted by society.

Bài mẫu 5 chủ đề giới tính và công việc 

“In spite of many advances women have made in education and employment, they continue to be at a disadvantage when it comes to pay and promotion. In your view, what should be done to promote equality of opportunity for men and women in the workplace?”

Females have made huge strides in education and job sector, despite this, they are increasingly not favoured when it comes to salaries and career advancement. In my opinion, women should be given the same opportunities as their male counterparts.

Firstly, females should be given more responsibilities, they should not be seen as inadequate or not up to the tasks. They are to be considered able and capable to handle all assignments as the opposite sex. This will enable them to function better mentally and psychologically. For instance, in my job as a Facilities Manager and my male colleagues earn better pay and compensation packages that I do, even though we have the same job description.

Secondly, equality is healthy and vital to the workplace as this will give the ladies a sense of belonging. Their achievements should be recognised and celebrated more. This can be done by employers organising awareness programmes on the importance of having women in the workplace. This will be an eye-opener to everyone and also help the women because they will be able to perform under better conditions, instead of being stereotyped. For example, I use to work on a site where I was the only lady and the men always feel I should not be working with them. However, my boss took us to a conference on women empowered and everyone’s mindset changed totally.

Finally, office policies on recruitment should intentionally include women in the same quantity as men. Companies should set consequences for gender discrimination and unacceptable performance environments. Include progressive disciplinary procedures that the company will follow if one employee files a complaint against another employee.

In conclusion, every employer should create an environment that encourages open communication and candour amongst the employees.

Bài khác 

We currently live in an era where we can constantly hear about women empowerment. Although women show significant progress in recent years, they are still underrated concerning their employment benefits such as salary hikes and job promotions. In my opinion, the female should be given the same opportunities as their male counterparts are offered. Effective measures need to be implemented to rectify this predicament.

To begin with, women have become more career-centric nowadays. To illustrate, as per the International business magazine, Forbes’ survey, female staff are 60% more productive than their male counterparts. This has to be recognized by the employers without any gender bias while allowing the promotion slots. Consequently, organizations would be beneficial and instrumental in professional achievements.

Furthermore, governments should encourage organizations to have gender equality while offering salaries. The companies audit should be conducted by the authenticated auditors the organizations whichever are diligently following the norms without showing any disparity should be rewarded. For instance, former CEO of Pepsico, Indira Nooyi, was rewarded by many international business magazines as the most influential personality for motivating many such women employees. The upcoming talent would get highly motivated by materializing such measures. Besides, corporates can assess by self-evaluations in their quarterly townhalls by announcing whether women employees are on par with the male staff.

All in all, equal wages and higher responsibilities should be offered without any gender disparity. Though it has been implemented in some areas, it should be spread worldwide for the greater good. Equal opportunities among men and women would help not only the companies but also the economic progress of the nation.

Bài mẫu chủ đề giới tính và thể thao

TV channels nowadays provide men’s sport shows more than women’s sport shows. Why is it the case? Should TV channel give equal time for women’s sports and men’s sports?

Today, sports media have been dominated by sportsmen, leaving sportswomen with very little attention. The main reasons for this lie in the prejudice against women doing sports, and the fact that men’s sports shows are generally more interesting than women’s, and I opine that equal coverage for both sexes is essential.

One reason for women not being given enough coverage is the deep-rooted notion that women should not engage in activities deemed ‘aggressive’ or ‘violent’, as can be seen from many popular sports today.

Images of female sports players competing against one another, several of which involve strong physical activities, are still considered unorthodox to many people, thereby rendering female sport shows relegated.

Additionally, sports involving men are, in many cases, more engaging and fun to watch than women’s. This is because men are innately stronger, more competitive and more aggressive, which makes their shows seemingly more sensational and dramatic.

Therefore, people generally prefer watching men doing sports to women, and the television industry can generate more profits from matches and contests played by men.

I believe that such negligence is intolerable in our today’s egalitarian society, and therefore equal showing time for both sexes should be considered.

The percentage of women’s participation in sports has been rising on an unprecedented scale in recent years, so they obviously deserve more public endorsement. Achievements of female sport figures shown on TV can encourage those with potential to embark on their sporting career.

Moreover, more showing time may attract additional investments from sponsors, which in turn may help improve the lives of sports women. Men sports have long been a multibillion-dollar industry which


  1. Many people believe that women make better parents than men and that this is why they have the greater role in raising children in most societies. Others claim that men are just as good as women at parenting. Do you agree?

Bài mẫu số 1 chủ đề giới tính và gia đình

Many people believe that women make better parents than men and that this is why they have the greater role in raising children in most societies. Others claim that men are just as good as women at parenting. Do you agree?

A big amount of people consider that women’s role in parenting is more important than men’s. However, others disagree with this statement and are sure that both parents are in equal conditions and have the same abilities to bring up kids. I will elaborate on these two thoughts and share my opinion in the following paragraphs.

To start with, the first group of people can actually have such an opinion due to life experience. Nowadays, too many kids were raised only by mum as their dad either did not want to take part in bringing up his child or just left the family. For instance, both adults communicate with the baby from birth, however, when the kid becomes older, the vast majority of males do not have a desire to do it.

Next, many people all over the world are struggling with gender equality, even in kids raising. Lots of young people are greatly aware that their role in the family depends only on individuals and their aspirations. Furthermore, some countries started to provide maternity leave not only for women but also for their husbands. For example, in Norway and Iceland, there is a concept called “daddy quotas”, following which, dad must look after his kid for 14 weeks – exactly a half of maternity leave.

To conclude, in my opinion, I am incredibly delighted with fact that more and more dads are involved in raising kids now. Hopefully, in the future, there would be a significant number of happy families as the world is changing and so are the minds of people.

Bài mẫu số 1 chủ đề giới tính và gia đình

A few populaces consider that a woman plays a significant role in the upbringing of a child than a man hence making her a better parent while a few others think that a man is just as capable enough as a woman when it comes to parenting. I believe that more than a comparison of genders it is vital to realize the importance of each part in the upbringing of their offspring.

On the one hand, when the interaction of a child and a mom is observed, it is evident that a child feels most comfortable with her. A mother understands the needs of her children without them having to explain them to her, something that is inherent to a lady. For instance, when an offspring is unwell, the child would feel utmost ease with one’s mother than anybody else. The very presence of this woman makes a huge difference.

On the other hand, while the mom is not around, it is the father who ensures the safety and well-being of their offsprings. Children enjoy the company of their father, there is so much that a man can do that otherwise would not be possible by the woman. There are certain aspects that only the male gender can fulfil in an infant’s life, such as providing for the family, and ensuring that they do not go hungry to bed.

In conclusion, both genders are equally important and play a crucial role in the growth of their offsprings. Both genders have their respective ways of expressing love and care and a role to play that is extremely important for the development of a toddler, both mentally and physically. I believe that a minor can have excellent parenting only when the father and the mother contribute to it and that one gender alone cannot do justice to this task.

Ghi chú: Bài viết được mình tổng hợp từ nhiều nguồn riêng lẻ, sau đó mình trình bày lại theo cách mình dễ đọc/dễ hiểu nhất nhằm phục vụ cho mục đích tự học của mình. 

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Đây là Blog cá nhân, đồng thời cũng là "nơi làm việc" của Kim - người làm nội dung tự do (Freelance Content Writer). Kim nhận viết bài đa dạng thể loại và xây dựng hệ thống nội dung bài bản, chuẩn SEO cho website hoặc Fanpage. Cảm ơn bạn đã dành thời gian truy cập vào Blog của Kim và đọc nội dung.


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